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Antliophora Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
Wolfe et al. 2016
node minimum age |
The oldest specimen of Pseudonannochorista willmanni was discovered from the Mitino Horizon at the Kaltan locality in the Kuznetsk Basin, Kemerovo, Russia (Sharov, 1961; Shcherbakov, 2000). Correlation of insect faunas suggests the Kaltan locality is late early Kazanian (Lozovsky et al., 2009; Shcherbakov, 2008). The Kazanian is a regional stage of the Russian Permian, which has been correlated to both the Wordian (Menning et al., 2006) and the Roadian global Stages (Lozovsky et al., 2009). Evidence for an age in the Roadian is stronger, demarcated by presence of ammonites such as Sverdrupites harkeri and Sverdrupites amundseni (Lozovsky et al., 2009). These ammonites, and associated conodonts Kamagnathus khalimbadzhai and Kamagnathus volgensis, correlate globally to the Roadian (Barskov et al., 2014; Leonova, 2007; Leonova and Shilovsky, 2007). The upper boundary of the Roadian is 268.8 Ma ± 0.5 Myr, so a minimum age is 268.3 Ma.
node maximum age |
A soft maximum age is estimated from R. praecursor, the oldest hexapod, from the Early Devonian (Pragian) Rhynie Chert of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Spore assemblages of the Windyfield and stratigraphically underlying Rhynie Chert are dated to the early but not earliest Pragian to early (earliest?) Emsian (polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone) (Parry et al., 2011). Radiometric dating of the underlying Milton of Noth Andesite at ca. 411 Ma (Parry et al., 2011, 2013) has been subject to a dispute over its temporal relationship to hot spring activity associated with the cherts (Mark et al., 2011, 2013) and predates the biostratigraphic dating of the Rhynie Chert relative to the global dating of the base of the Pragian Stage. Therefore, a soft maximum constraint may be defined at 411 Ma for the Rhynie Chert.
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Pseudonannochoristinae is a subfamily of the Permochoristidae (Bashkuev, 2011; Novokshonov, 1994), however, a morphological phylogenetic analysis indicates polyphyly of this family (Ren et al., 2009). While the Permochoristinae (the other subfamily of Permochoristidae) fall on the stem lineage of Antliophora, Pseudonannochoristinae are part of the stem lineage of Mecoptera (Ren et al., 2009). Therefore, P. willmanni, as a member of Pseudonannochoristinae, is part of the crown group of Antliophora.
Ren, D., Labandeira, C.C., Santiago-Blay, J.A., Rasnitsyn, A.P., Shih, C., Bashkuev, A., Logan, M.A.V., Hotton, C.L., Dilcher, D.L., 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326, 840–846.
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