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Neuropterida Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
Wolfe et al. 2016
node minimum age |
This fossil occurs in the Carlton Limestone Member of the Wellington Formation in the Sumner Group of Elmo, Dickinson County, central Kansas (Prokop et al., 2015; Zambito et al., 2012). The insect bearing locality is correlated with the Leonardian regional Stage (Sawin et al., 2008; Zambito et al., 2012) on the basis of conchostracan biostratigraphy (Tasch, 1962). The Leonardian spans the Artinskian and the younger Kungurian Stage (Henderson et al., 2012). The upper boundary of the Kungurian is 272.3 Ma±0.5 Myr, thus providing a conservative minimum age estimate of 271.8 Ma.
node maximum age |
A soft maximum age is estimated from R. praecursor, the oldest hexapod, from the Early Devonian (Pragian) Rhynie Chert of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Spore assemblages of the Windyfield and stratigraphically underlying Rhynie Chert are dated to the early but not earliest Pragian to early (earliest?) Emsian (polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone) (Parry et al., 2011). Radiometric dating of the underlying Milton of Noth Andesite at ca. 411 Ma (Parry et al., 2011, 2013) has been subject to a dispute over its temporal relationship to hot spring activity associated with the cherts (Mark et al., 2011, 2013) and predates the biostratigraphic dating of the Rhynie Chert relative to the global dating of the base of the Pragian Stage. Therefore, a soft maximum constraint may be defined at 411 Ma for the Rhynie Chert.
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A morphological phylogenetic analysis placed the Permithonidae sensu lato as a stem group to the extant Neuroptera (Ren et al., 2009; shown in supplementary information therein). A position on the stem lineage of Neuroptera is thus part of the crown group of Neuropterida. As the coding was done at a family level, we note with caution that monophyly of the Permithonidae and the exact relationships of its member species with Neuroptera has not been examined in a phylogenetic context and remain obscure (Prokop et al., 2015). Nonetheless, most members of Permithonidae possess the character states coded by Ren et al. (2009), so we take the oldest well-described member, E. martynovae, as a calibration fossil.
Ren, D., Labandeira, C.C., Santiago-Blay, J.A., Rasnitsyn, A.P., Shih, C., Bashkuev, A., Logan, M.A.V., Hotton, C.L., Dilcher, D.L., 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326, 840–846.
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