comment on this calibration


 node name
Plecoptera     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations
Wolfe et al. 2016
  node minimum age
268.3 Ma
The oldest specimen of Palaeotaeniopteryx elegans was discovered from the Mitino Horizon at the Kaltan locality in the Kuznetsk Basin, Kemerovo, Russia (Sharov, 1961; Shcherbakov, 2000). Correlation of insect faunas suggests the Kaltan locality is late early Kazanian (Lozovsky et al., 2009; Shcherbakov, 2008). The Kazanian is a regional stage of the Russian Permian, which has been correlated to both the Wordian (Menning et al., 2006) and the Roadian global Stages (Lozovsky et al., 2009). Evidence for an age in the Roadian is stronger, demarcated by presence of ammonites such as Sverdrupites harkeri and Sverdrupites amundseni (Lozovsky et al., 2009). These ammonites, and associated conodonts Kamagnathus khalimbadzhai and Kamagnathus volgensis, correlate globally to the Roadian (Barskov et al., 2014; Leonova, 2007; Leonova and Shilovsky, 2007). The upper boundary of the Roadian is 268.8 Ma ± 0.5 Myr, so a minimum age is 268.3 Ma.
  node maximum age
411 Ma
A soft maximum age is estimated from R. praecursor, the oldest hexapod, from the Early Devonian (Pragian) Rhynie Chert of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Spore assemblages of the Windyfield and stratigraphically underlying Rhynie Chert are dated to the early but not earliest Pragian to early (earliest?) Emsian (polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone) (Parry et al., 2011). Radiometric dating of the underlying Milton of Noth Andesite at ca. 411 Ma (Parry et al., 2011, 2013) has been subject to a dispute over its temporal relationship to hot spring activity associated with the cherts (Mark et al., 2011, 2013) and predates the biostratigraphic dating of the Rhynie Chert relative to the global dating of the base of the Pragian Stage. Therefore, a soft maximum constraint may be defined at 411 Ma for the Rhynie Chert.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
PIN 1197/333
Palaeotaeniopteryx elegans, Sharov, 1961
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Kaltan
     Stratum: Mitino Horizon
     Geological age: Permian, Paleozoic

  phylogenetic justification
Palaeotaeniopteryx elegans is classified in the fossil family Palaeonemouridae, suborder Nemourina (Sinitshenkova, 1987). At that time, Nemourina was one of only two suborders, the other being Perlina (Rasnitsyn and Quicke, 2002). Zwick (2000) summarized Nemourina as containing the (extant) families Notonemouridae, Nemouridae, Taeniopterygidae, Capniidae, and Leuctridae, therefore equivalent to the new suborder Euholognatha. Grimaldi and Engel (2005; Fig. 7.6) prefer a placement of Palaeonemouridae outside the crown group of Plecoptera, on the basis that diagnostic characters for crown group suborders within Plecoptera are rarely preserved (e.g. muscles, cellular structures). While no formal phylogenetic hypothesis illustrates the relationship of Palaeonemouridae to other Euholognatha, synapomorphies are identified linking Palaeotaeniopteryx elegans to the crown group of Plecoptera (Béthoux, 2005, pers. comm.).
  phylogenetic reference(s)
The linked fossil has no phylogentic references.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 19 from Wolfe et al. (2016).