comment on this calibration


 node name
Pleurostigmophora     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations
Wolfe et al. 2016
  node minimum age
382.7 Ma
D. delta occurs in the Middle Devonian Gilboa locality, Schoharie County, New York State, USA. Fossils come from the upper part of the Panther Mountain Formation, dated to the Tioughniogan regional Stage, Givetian in the global time scale. Palynomorphs are consistent with a Givetian age (Richardson et al., 1993). Accordingly, minimum date for the end of the Givetian/base of the Frasnian is applied (382.7 Ma).
  node maximum age
521 Ma
A soft maximum age is obtained from the oldest mandibulate, Y. dianensis, which was recovered from the Yu'anshan Formation at Xiaotan section, Yongshan, Yunnan Province, attributed to the Eoredlichia–Wutingaspis Biozone (Zhang et al., 2007). Chinese Cambrian stratigraphy has been revised substantially and the Eoredlichia –Wutingaspis Biozone is no longer recognized (Peng, 2003, 2009). However, Eoredlichia is known to co-occur with Hupeidiscus, which is diagnostic of the Hupeidiscus-Sinodiscus Biozone, which is formally recognized as the second biozone of the Nangaoan Stage of the Qiandongian Series of the Cambrian of China (Peng and Babcock,2008). The Nangaoan is the proposed third stage of the Cambrian System for the International Geologic Timescale (Peng et al., 2012a).Thus, a soft maximum constraint can be established on the age of the lower boundary of the Nangaoan, which has been dated to 521 Ma (Peng et al., 2012a; Peng and Babcock, 2008).
 primary fossil used to date this node 
AMNH slide 411-15- A
Devonobius delta, Shear and Bonamo, 1988
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Gilboa
     Stratum: Panther Mountain Formation
     Geological age: Devonian, Paleozoic

  phylogenetic justification
D. delta was resolved in a trichotomy with Craterostigmus and Epimorpha in the morphological cladistic analysis of Edgecombe and Giribet (2004), Fig. 9), and as sister group to extant Phylactometria when those data were combined with sequence data from four genes (Edgecombe and Giribet, 2004, Fig. 14). Published analyses agree on it being more closely related to Epimorpha than to Lithobiomorpha (Shear and Bonamo, 1988, Fig. 1; Murienne et al., 2010, Fig. 2; Fernández et al., in press) and it is accordingly crown Pleurostigmophora.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Fernández, R., Edgecombe, G.D., and Giribet, G. 2016. Exploring phylogenetic relationships within Myriapoda and the effects of matrix composition and occupancy on phylogenomic reconstruction. Systematic Biology 65:871-889.
Shear, W.A., Bonamo, P.M. 1988. Devonobiomorpha, a new order of centipeds (Chilopoda) from the Middle Devonian of Gilboa, New York State, USA, and the phylogeny of centiped orders. Am. Mus. Novit. 2927, 1–30.
Edgecombe, G.D., Giribet, G., 2004. Adding mitochondrial sequence data (16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) to the phylogeny of centipedes (Myriapoda: Chilopoda): an analysis of morphology and four molecular loci. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 42, 89–134.
Murienne, J., Edgecombe, G.D., Giribet, G., 2010. Including secondary structure, fossils and molecular dating in the centipede Tree of Life. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 57, 301–313
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 8 from Wolfe et al. (2016).