comment on this calibration


 node name
Thecostraca     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations
Wolfe et al. 2016
  node minimum age
429.8 Ma
This fossil is preserved as a carbonate concretion from the volcaniclastic Herefordshire Lagerstätte of Herefordshire, England, at the Sheinwoodian-Homerian stage boundary, within the Early Silurian Wenlock Series (Siveter, 2008). As the Homerian begins at 430.5 Ma ± 0.7 Myr, a minimum age constraint for the Herefordshire can thus be placed at 429.8 Ma.
  node maximum age
521 Ma
A soft maximum age is obtained from the oldest mandibulate, Y. dianensis, which was recovered from the Yu'anshan Formation at Xiaotan section, Yongshan, Yunnan Province, attributed to the Eoredlichia–Wutingaspis Biozone (Zhang et al., 2007). Chinese Cambrian stratigraphy has been revised substantially and the Eoredlichia –Wutingaspis Biozone is no longer recognized (Peng, 2003, 2009). However, Eoredlichia is known to co-occur with Hupeidiscus, which is diagnostic of the Hupeidiscus-Sinodiscus Biozone, which is formally recognized as the second biozone of the Nangaoan Stage of the Qiandongian Series of the Cambrian of China (Peng and Babcock,2008). The Nangaoan is the proposed third stage of the Cambrian System for the International Geologic Timescale (Peng et al., 2012a).Thus, a soft maximum constraint can be established on the age of the lower boundary of the Nangaoan, which has been dated to 521 Ma (Peng et al., 2012a; Peng and Babcock, 2008).
 primary fossil used to date this node 
OUM C.29587
Rhamphoverritor reduncus, Briggs et al., 2005
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Herefordshire Lagerstätte
     Geological age: Silurian, Paleozoic

  phylogenetic justification
In a phylogenetic analysis of morphology, R. reduncus is the sister group of two species of Thoracica (both are members of Balanomorpha)(Legg et al., 2013). This is a position likely within the crown group of Thecostraca, however, no other thecostracans (such as Facetotecta and Ascothoracida) were included. Generally, the cyprid larval morphotype (with an elongated head shield, six swimming thoracopods, and robustmodified antennules) is considered a synapomorphy of Thecostraca (Høeg et al., 2004). R. reduncus differs from cirripede cyprids as it lacks attachment discs, and its abdomen extends past the head shield; a differentiated abdomen is a condition of Ascothoracida (Briggs et al.,2005; Høeg et al., 2009a). Based on the presence of five shell plates in a juvenile specimen, Høeg et al. (2009b) suggested that R. reduncus may be placed on the cirripede stem lineage. In combination with the phylogenetic analysis of Legg et al. (2013), these apomorphies indicate that R. reduncus is very likely a member of crown group Thecostraca, and likely on the stem of Cirripedia.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Legg, D.A., Sutton, M.D., Edgecombe, G.D. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4, 2485.
Høeg, J.T., Lagersson, N.C., and Glenner, H. 2004. The complete cypris larva and its significance in thecostracan phylogeny. In: Scholtz, G. (Ed.), Evolutionary and Developmental Biology of Crustacea, Crustacean Issues. AA Balkema Publishers, Lisse, Netherlands, pp. 197–215.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 12 from Wolfe et al. (2016)