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Opiliones Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
Wolfe et al. 2016
node minimum age |
This fossil is known from the Early Devonian (Pragian) Rhynie Chert of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Spore assemblages of the Windyfield and stratigraphically underlying Rhynie Chert are dated to the early but not earliest Pragian to early (earliest?) Emsian (polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone) (Parry et al., 2011). Radiometric dating of the underlying Milton of Noth Andesite at ca. 411 Ma (Parry et al.,2011, 2013) has been subject to a dispute over its temporal relationship to hot spring activity associated with the cherts (Mark et al., 2011, 2013)and predates the biostratigraphic dating of the Rhynie Chert relative to the global dating of the base of the Pragian Stage. Therefore, a minimum age constraint may be defined at 405.0 Ma for the Rhynie Chert, using the Pragian-Emsian boundary (407.6 Ma ± 2.6 Myr) as a reference.
node maximum age |
A soft maximum constraint comes from the oldest chelicerate W. barbarahardyae from the Emu Bay Shale on Kangaroo Island, SouthAustralia, which has been correlated based on trilobite biostratigraphy to the upper part of the P. janeae Zone in mainland South Australia (Jell in Bengtson et al., 1990; Fig. 2 in Jago et al., 2012). As this is equivalent to the Canglangpuan Stage in South China and the late Botoman inSiberia (Gehling et al., 2011, Fig. 9), the Emu Bay Shale can be dated to Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4, providing a maximum age of ~514 Ma.
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PBM slide no. 3503
In a phylogenetic analysis of morphology, E. sheari was placed in a polytomy with members of Phalangida, to the exclusion of Cyphophthalmi (Garwood and Dunlop, 2014). In combined analysis of molecules and morphology, E. sheari was resolved as a stem group Cyphophthalmi (Garwood et al., 2014). Both positions, however, fall within the crown group of Opiliones.
Garwood, R.J., and Dunlop, J. 2014. Three-dimensional reconstruction and the phylogeny of extinct chelicerate orders. PeerJ 2, e641.
Garwood, R.J., Sharma, P.P., Dunlop, J.A., Giribet, G., 2014. A Paleozoic stem group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development. Curr. Biol. 24, 1017–1023.
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