comment on this calibration


 node name
Bungarus     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Head et al. 2016
  node minimum age
10.215 Ma
The minimum age is based on the maximum age estimate for locality Y-450, the oldest record of Bungarus from the Siwalik Group of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan (Barry et al., 2002; Head, 2005). Precise magnetostratigraphic analysis combined with sedimentation rate estimates has resolved Siwalik Group fossil localities to a temporal resolution of 104 years (e.g., Flynn et al., 1990; Barry et al., 2002).
  node maximum age
None specified
 primary fossil used to date this node 
H-GSP 53026
Bungarus sp., Head, 2005
Location relative to the calibrated node: Stem

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Siwalik Group of the Potwar Plateau
     Geological age: Miocene, Neogene, Cenozoic

  phylogenetic justification
Assignment to the clade consisting of Bungarus species more closely related to each other than to B. bungaroides or B. flaviceps is based on the presence of both expanded prezygapophyseal accessory processes and postzygapophyseal accessory processes (McDowell, 1970; Slowinski, 1994).
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Slowinski, J.B. 1994. A phylogenetic analysis of Bungarus (Elapidae) based on morphological characters. Journal of Herpetology, 28:440-446.
McDowell, S.B. 1970. On the status and relationships of the Solomon Island elapid snakes. Journal of Zoology, 161:145-190.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 1 from Head et al. (2016).