comment on this calibration


 node name
Pelecanidae     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Smith and Ksepka, 2015
  node minimum age
28.1 Ma
The specimen was collected from Pichovet, 3 km northeast of Vachéres, Luberon, in southeastern France (43º55'N, 5º40'E) (Louchart et al., 2011). The specimen was found in fine-grained limestone, indicative of a coastal freshwater lagoon depositional environment (Louchart et al., 2011). The deposits from Pichovet have been biostratigraphically correlated with the Mammal Paleogene biostratigraphic zone MP 24, which is within the Rupelian (Mourer-Chauviré,1985; Legendre and Lévêque, 1997; Mayr, 2006). The temporal age range for the Rupelian has been inferred to be 28.1–33.9 Ma (BiochroM, 1997; Gradstein et al., 2012; Cohen et al., 2013; Walker et al., 2013). Following best practices for justifying minimum age constraints (Parham et al., 2012), the youngest possible age for the Rupelian, inclusive of error is specified: 28.1 Ma.
  node maximum age
0 Ma
None specified.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
NT-LBR 039
Location relative to the calibrated node: Stem

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Pichovet
     Geological age: Oligoene, Paleogene, Cenozoic

  phylogenetic justification
Phylogenetic justification is based on three cranial apomorphic characters of Pelecanidae that are preserved in the specimen (Louchart et al., 2011). These include a long, spatulate rostrum with two ridges on the ventral surface subparallel to the edges, long and thin mandibular rami, and a rostrally located syndesmotic intraramal hinge in the mandible. None of these characters are present in any other bird species, thus they will optimize as synapomorphies uniting NT-LBR-039 and extant pelicans regardless of which avian group constitutes the extant sister taxon of Pelecanidae.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Louchart, A., Tourment, N., and Carrier, J. 2011. The earliest known pelican reveals 30 million years of evolutionary stasis in beak morphology. Journal of Ornithology, 152:15–20.
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 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 3 from Smith and Ksepka (2015).