comment on this calibration


 node name
Hominoidea     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Benton et al. 2015
  node minimum age
11.6 Ma
The Chinji Formation of Pakistan corresponds to magnetic polarity chron 5Ar, estimated to be ca. 12 Ma before present (Kappelman et al., 1991). This correlates to the Serravallian stage, the top of which is at 11.6 Ma, our minimum estimate for the divergence of the orangutan from other great apes.
  node maximum age
33.9 Ma
As a soft maximum we suggest the first diverse occurrence of anthropoids from the earliest Oligocene of the Fayûm, Egypt. These primates comprise a diverse radiation just on the Oligocene side of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at 33.9 Ma (Seiffert, 2006; Gradstein et al., 2012), and lack derived features of the extant great ape lineages.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
GSP Y-16075
Sivapithecus indicus, Pilgrim, 1910
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Siwaliks
     Stratum: Chinji Formation
     Geological age: Miocene, Neogene, Cenozoic

More information in Fossilworks   PaleoBioDB

  phylogenetic justification
Sivapithecus is identified by phylogenetic analysis as a member of total-group Ponginae, a stem gibbon, and so nested within crown Hominoidea (Ward and Kimbel, 1983; Seiffert, 2006).
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Seiffert, E.R. 2006. Revised age estimates for the later Paleogene mammal faunas of Egypt and Oman. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 103:5000-5005.
Ward, S.C. and Kimbel, W.H. 1983. Subnasal alveolar morphology and the systematic position of Sivapithecus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 61:157-171.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 11 of Benton et al. (2014).