comment on this calibration


 node name
Catarrhini     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Benton et al. 2015
  node minimum age
24.44 Ma
The deposits of the Nsungwe Formation containing Rukwapithecus are constrained by multiple radiometric dates, indicating an absolute age of 24.93 ± 0.49 Ma (Roberts et al., 2010), hence minimally 24.44 Ma.
  node maximum age
34 Ma
The soft maximum constraint is based on members of the stem of Catarrhini, namely the families Propliopithecidae (Propliopithecus, Aegyptopithecus) and Oligopithecidae (Oligopithecus, Catopithecus) that are basal to the cercopithecoid-hominoid split (Rasmussen, 2002; Stevens et al., 2013). These are represented in the Fayûm beds in Egypt, which possess a diverse anthropoid primate fauna, including stem platyrrhines and catarrhines from 33.9 – 28.4 Ma ± 0.1 Myr (Seiffert et al., 2005; Seiffert, 2006). Hence, at the base of the Oligocene at 33.9 Ma ± 0.1 Myr, the Fayûm shows a diversity of primates and other mammals, but no members of crown-group hominoids or cercopithecoids.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
RRBP 12444A
Rukwapithecus fleaglei , Stevens et al. 2013
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Rukwa Rift Basin
     Stratum: Nsungwe Formation
     Geological age: Oligoene, Paleogene, Cenozoic

  phylogenetic justification
Rukwapithecus fleaglei is based on a right mandible with p4-m3. Phylogenetic analysis by Stevens et al. (2013) places this taxon within crown Catarrhini, basal to the gibbon-great ape split but closer to hominoids than to cercopithecoids. Stevens et al. (2013) also attributed an isolated m3 from the same locality to Cercopithecoidea.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Stevens, N.J., Seiffert, E.R., O'Connor, P.M., Roberts, E.M., Schmitz, M.D., Krause, C., Gorscak, E., Ngasala, S., Hieronymus, T.L., and Temu, J. 2013. Palaeontological evidence for an Oligocene divergence between Old World monkeys and apes. Nature, 497, 611–614.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 11 of Benton et al. (2014).