comment on this calibration


 node name
Bovinae-Antilopinae     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Benton et al. 2015
  node minimum age
16 Ma
Pseudoeotragus seegrabensis is from the MN4 planktic foraminifera zone, with a quoted age of 18–17 Ma (Bibi, 2013). MN4 is part of the Burdigalian stage, so we adopt a conservative stance, and select the top of the Burdigalian as our hard minimum constraint, namely 15.97 Ma ± 0.0 Myr = 15.97 Ma (Gradstein et al., 2012).
  node maximum age
28.1 Ma
We set the soft maximum constraint at the base of the Chattian stage of the late Oligocene (28.1 Ma), encompassing many equivocal stem bovids, but lacking those from the crown.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
Joanneum 3678
Pseudoeotragus seegrabensis, van der Made, 1989
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Leoben
     Geological age: Miocene, Neogene, Cenozoic

More information in Fossilworks   PaleoBioDB

  phylogenetic justification
Pseudoeotragus has been determined phylogenetically as closer to antelopines than bovines (Bibi 2009: figure 1), but with some uncertainty. However, it is certainly accepted as a member of crown Bovidae and is similar in age to many other records of crown bovids, such as those from the Miocene site of Ft. Ternan, Kenya (Bibi, 2013).
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Bibi, F., Bukhsianidze, M., Gentry, A.W., Geraads, D., Kostopoulos, D.S., and Vrba, E. 2009. The fossil record and evolution of Bovidae: state of the field. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:1-11.
Bibi, F. 2013. A multi-calibrated mitochondrial phylogeny of extant Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) and the importance of the fossil record to systematics. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13: 166.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 10 from Benton et al. (2014).