Lineage (NCBI): root » Eukaryota » Opisthokonta » Metazoa » Eumetazoa » Bilateria » Coelomata » Deuterostomia » Chordata » Craniata <chordata> » Vertebrata <Metazoa> » Gnathostomata <vertebrate> » Euteleostomi » Sarcopterygii » Tetrapoda » Amniota » Mammalia » Theria <Mammalia> » Eutheria » Laurasiatheria » Carnivora
Carnivora Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/fc-1 Benton et al. 2015
node minimum age |
The oldest caniforms are amphicyonids such as Daphoenus and canids such as Hesperocyon, known from the earliest Duchesnean NALMA, which corresponds to magnetochron 18N and is dated as 39.74 Ma ± 0.07 Myr, based on radiometric dating of the LaPoint Tuff (Robinson et al., 2004). This correlates to the Bartonian stage with a minimum limit of 37.8 ± 0.5 Ma (Gradstein et al., 2012), thus providing a minimum constraint of 37.3 Ma.
node maximum age |
The soft maximum constraint is based on the occurrence of the oldest stem-carnivorans (miacids, viverravids) in the early Paleocene (Fox et al., 2010), so 66.04 Ma ± 0.4 Myr = 66 Ma.
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Phylogenetic analysis shows that Hesperocyon is closely related to Canidae, based on its possession of a fully ossified auditory bulla composed mainly of the caudal entotympanic, with contributions from the ecotympanic and rostral entotympanic, and the caudla entotympanic forms a partial septum within the middle-ear cavity (Wesley-Hunt and Flynn, 2005).
Wesley-Hunt, G. and Flynn, J.J. 2005. Phylogeny of the Carnivora:basal relationships among the carnivoramorphans, and assessment of the position of ‘Miacoidea’ relative to Carnivora. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 3:1-28.
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