Lineage (NCBI): root » Eukaryota » Opisthokonta » Metazoa » Eumetazoa » Bilateria » Coelomata » Deuterostomia » Chordata » Craniata <chordata> » Vertebrata <Metazoa> » Gnathostomata <vertebrate> » Euteleostomi » Sarcopterygii » Tetrapoda » Amniota » Mammalia » Theria <Mammalia> » Eutheria » Afrotheria » Proboscidea <mammal> » Elephantidae
Proboscidea Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/fc-1 Benton et al. 2015
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The oldest crown proboscideans are represented by cheek teeth from the upper Miocene, including the Lukeino Formation (Kenya) and Toros Menalla (Chad). While Toros Menalla is likely older, both correlate to the Messinian marine stage with a minimum bound of 5.33 Ma (Sanders et al., 2010; Gradstein et al., 2012).
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Paleogene strata have yielded abundant proboscidean remains, spanning the upper Paleocene (Gheerbrant, 2009) through the early Miocene (Sanders et al., 2010). Sediments prior to the Miocene lack any fossils remotely similar to members of Elephantinae. Hence, we define the paleontological soft maximum constraint as the Oligocene-Miocene boundary, equivalent to the base of the Aquitanian marine stage at 23.03 Ma.
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KNM LU 916
Following Sanders et al. (2010), isolated teeth from the African sites mentioned above exhibit loxodont apomorphies, including propeller or lozenge shaped wear patterns.
Sanders, W. J., Gheerbrant, E., Harris, J. M., Saegusa, H. & Delmer, C. (2010) Proboscidea. In: Cenozoic Mammals of Africa, (Werdelin, L. & Sanders, W. J., eds.). pp. 161-251. University of California Press, Berkeley.
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