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Batrachia Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/fc-1 Benton et al. 2015
node minimum age |
The Sakamena Group in Madagascar spans from Late Permian to Middle Triassic, and the Middle Sakamena Group/ Formation is generally dated as lower Lower Triassic, the Upper Sakamena Group/ Formation, Lower to lower Middle Triassic. The entire Sakamena Group is some 4 km thick, and it is subdivided based on dominant lithologies: the middle portion is a sequence of shales and minot sandstones deposited in a logoonal or shallow lacustrine and braided river environment, whereas the units below and above are dominated by sandstones and conglomerates indicating higher energies of deposition. Dating of the Sakamena Group is notoriously difficult, as there are no radiometric dates, there has been no magnetostratigraphic study, and the associated fossils are not classic biostratigraphically useful index fossils. Nonetheless, the Middle Sakamena Group is dated as Induan on the basis of the associated fauna of benthosuchid temnospondyls (like those of the Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone of South Africa and the Vokhmian units of Russia, as well as plants also suggesting Induan age. The top of the Induan stage is dated as "slightly older than" 251.2 Ma ï¿½ 0.2 Myr (Mundil et al., 2010), and given as 250.01 Ma by Gradstein et al. (2012, p. 718), so we select this age as the minimum constraint, namely 250.0 Ma.
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It is hard to know how far down to set the soft maximum age for Batrachia, as there are no reported stem batrachians from older Triassic or Permian rocks. As for Lissamphibia, an arbitrary date is set at the base of the Middle Permian.
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MNHNFr MAE 126
Triadobatrachus has always been recognized as basal member of Anura, within the stem Batrachia, and so the oldest member of the crown Batrachia, based on its possession of the key apomorphies of a posteriorly open maxillary arcade, absence of an ossified postparietal, tabular, jugal, and quadratojugal, and other characters (Ruta and Coates, 2007).
Piveteau, J. 1936. Une forme ancestrale des Amphibiens Anoures dans le Trias inférieur de Madagascar." CR Acad. Sci., Paris 202:1607-1608.
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