comment on this calibration


 node name
Ostariophysi     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Benton et al. 2015
  node minimum age
126.3 Ma
The lithographic limestones of El Montsec are widely cited in recent paleontological literature as late Berriasian-early Valanginian in age (e.g., de Gibert et al., 2010; Brocklehurst et al., 2012), and this date has been applied by some molecular clock analyses using fossil-based calibrations from the site (e.g., Peng et al., 2006; Lavoué et al., 2010; Near et al., 2012). However, clear evidence in support of this estimate is lacking, and a younger age for at least some portions of this unit seems likely. The arguments presented here represent a synthesis of those presented by Gomez et al. (2002) in their review of the geological setting of El Montsec. The marine unit underlying this horizon yields benthic foraminifera (Trocholina alpina) and dasycladales indicating a Berriasian age (Gomez et al., 2002). The freshwater lithographic limestones that bear specimens of Rubiesichthys are estimated to be of Berriasian-early Barremian age on the basis of ostracodes and charophyte algae (Brenner et al., 1974; Martín-Closas and López-Morón, 1995). These deposits are overlain by marine limestones dated to the late Barremian-early Aptian on the basis of orbitolinid foraminifera (Peybernès, 1976; Schroeder et al., 1982), and which constrain the minimum age of Rubiesichthys. The Barremian is dated approximately as 130.8 to 126.3 Ma, from which we derive our minimum age estimate of 126.3 Ma for the origin of crown Ostariophysi.
  node maximum age
158.3 Ma
The clade uniting Rubiesichthys and the slightly younger Gordichthys represents the earliest diverging branch on the chanid stem. More crownward members of the chanid stem lineage derive from younger deposits, meaning that current chanid phylogenies are largely consistent with the stratigraphic distribution of fossil forms. Immediate outgroups to Chanidae make their first appearance in the fossil record after that clade (Gonorhynchidae: Cenomanian; Kneriidae: Eocene: no fossil record; Fara et al., 2010; Davis et al., 2013). The rich fish faunas from Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian) lithographic limestones in Germany (Wattendorf, Nusplingen, Schamhaupten, Solnhofen, Mörnsheim) and France (Cerin, Canjeurs) yield only a single member of crown Otocephala: Tischlingerichthys (see details for Node 32). The base of the Kimmeridgian is dated to 157.3 Ma ± 1.0 Myr. From this we derive a maximum age estimate of 158.3 Ma for the origin of crown Ostariophysi.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
MNHNFr MSE 857a,b
Rubiesichthys gregalis, Wenz, 1984
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Lérida
     Stratum: El Montsec lithographic limestone
     Geological age: Cretaceous, Mesozoic

More information in Fossilworks   PaleoBioDB

  phylogenetic justification
Rubiesichthys gregalis has been described in detail by Poyato-Ariza (1996b), and maximum-parsimony analyses of morphological data place this species as a stem chanid (Grande and Poyato-Ariza, 1995, 1999; Poyato-Ariza 1996a,c).
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Grande, T. and Poyato-Ariza, F.J. 1995. A cladistic analysis of fossil and living gonorynchiform ostariophysan fishes. Geobios, Mémoire Spéciale, 19:197-199.
Grande, T. and Poyato-Ariza, F.J. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of fossil and Recent gonorynchiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 125:197-238.
Poyato-Ariza, F.J. 1996. The phylogenetic relationships of Rubiesichthys gregalis and Gordichthys coquensis (Ostariophysi, Chanidae) from the Early Cretaceous of Spain, p. 329-348. In Arratia, G. and Viohl, G. (eds), Mesozoic fishes – systematics and paleoecology. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich.
Poyato-Ariza, F.J. 1996b. A revision of Rubiesichthys gregalis Wenz 1984, p. 361-368. In Arratia, G. and Viohl, G. (eds), Mesozoic fishes – systematics and paleoecology. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich.
Poyato-Ariza, F.J. 1996c. A revision of the ostariophysan fish family Chanidae, with special reference to the Mesozoic forms. PalaeoIchthyologica, 6:1-52.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 5 from Benton et al. (2014).