comment on this calibration


 node name
Otocephala     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Benton et al. 2015
  node minimum age
150.94 Ma
The Mörnsheim Formation lies within the Subplanites moernsheimensis Subzone of the Hybonoticeras hybonotum Ammonite Zone (Schweigert, 2007). The top of the Hybonoticeras hybonotum Ammonite Zone has been estimated through interpolation as 150.94 Ma (Gradstein, et al., 2013), yielding a minimum age for crown Otocephala.
  node maximum age
228.4 Ma
A plausible minimum for the origin of crown Otocephala, like that for crown Clupeocephala discussed above, can only be defined in approximate terms. Crown teleosts are completely absent from older marine Lagerstätten of Triassic-Jurassic age, including the Zorzino Limestone (Norian; Tintori; 1998), the Posidonia Shale (Toarcian; Hauff and Hauff, 1981; Röhl et al., 2001), the Blue Lias (Sinemurian-Hettangian; Page, 2010; Forey et al., 2010), and the Oxford Clay (Callovian-Oxfordian; Hudson and Martill, 1991; Martill, 1991). The oldest locality that yields members of the teleost total group in any diversity is the Carnian of Reingrabener Shale of Polberg bei Lunz, Austria (Griffiths, 1977). This marine unit contains only stem teleosts, which are represented by the putative ichthyokentemid Elpistoichthys and the pholidophorid Pholidophoretes<.i> (Griffiths, 1977; Arratia, 2013). The base of the Carnian is dated as approximately 235 Ma (Ogg, 2012), from which we derive our soft maximum for the origin of crown Otocephala.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
JM Moe 8
Tischlingerichthys viohli, Arratia, 1997
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Mühlheim, Bavaria
     Stratum: Mörnsheim Formation
     Geological age: Jurassic, Mesozoic

  phylogenetic justification
Tischlingerichthys is placed as the sister taxon of the ostariophysans Gordichthys and Chanos to the exclusion of clupeomorphs and other teleosts in a maximum parsimony analysis of 135 morphological characters (Arratia, 1997).
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Arratia, G. 1997. Basal teleosts and teleostean phylogeny. Palaeo Ichthyologica, 7:1-168.
Arratia, G. 2001. The monophyly of Teleostei and stem-group teleosts. Consensus and disagreements, p. 265-334. In Arratia, G. and Schultze, H.-P. (eds.), Mesozoic Fishes 2—Systematics and Fossil Record. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Munich.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 5 from Benton et al. (2014).