comment on this calibration


 node name
Teleostei     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Benton et al. 2015
  node minimum age
151.2 Ma
The Rögling Formation underlies the more famous Solnhofen Formation, and is assigned to the Malm Epsilon division of the Franconian Jura (Viohl and Zapp, 2007). The beds at Schamhaupten can be constrained to the Neochetoceras rebouletianum Horizon within the Lithacoceras ulmense Subzone of the Hybonoticeras beckeri Ammonite Zone, indicating a latest Kimmeridgian age (Schweigert, 2007; Gradstein et al., 2012). The top of the Kimmeridgian is dated to 152.1 Ma ± 0.9 Myr (Gradstein et al., 2012), from which we derive a minimum age of 151.2 Ma.
  node maximum age
252.7 Ma
The earliest crown teleosts are approximately coeval with the first representatives of a series of more derived subclades, most notably total-group Euteleostei and crown-group Otocephala (see nodes 31 and 32 below for discussion). The rapid appearance of these groups in the Late Jurassic is likely driven, at least in part, by Lagerstätten effects reflecting the abundance of lithographic limestones of this age characterized by exceptional preservation. As a consequence, it is probable that the fossil-based minimum for the origin of crown teleosts substantially underestimates the true time of origin for this group. Crown teleosts are completely absent from older marine Lagerstätten of Triassic-Middle Jurassic age, including Besano-Monte San Giorgio (Ladinian; Tintori; 1998), the Zorzino Limestone (Norian; Tintori, 1998), the Posidonia Shale (Toarcian; Hauff and Hauff, 1981; Röhl et al., 2001), the Blue Lias (Sinemurian-Hettangian; Page, 2010; Forey et al., 2010), and the Oxford Clay (Callovian-Oxfordian; Hudson and Martill, 1991; Martill, 1991). Crown and stem teleosts are absent from a series of Induan sites in Greenland, Svalbard, Canada, and Madagacar that yield diverse fish faunas that contain abundant stem and crown neopterygians. We take these assemblages as defining the soft maximum bound for the origin of crown teleosts. The base of the Induan is dated as 252.2 Ma ± 0.5 Myr, from which we derive a maximum bound of 252.7 Ma.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
Anaethalion zapporum, Arratia, 2000
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Schamhaupten
     Stratum: Rögling Formation
     Geological age: Jurassic, Mesozoic

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  phylogenetic justification
The association between Anaethalion and elopomorphs has a long history, and has been tested by cladistic investigation. This genus is placed as a fossil sister group to the extant elopomorph Elops by Arratia (1997) in a maximum parsimony analysis of 135 morphological characters. A more focused analysis including multiple species of Anaethalion corroborates the close relationship between A. zapporum and extant elopomorphs, but suggests that the genus is paraphyletic (Arratia, 2000). Because these analyses include only a single extant elopomorph, it is impossible to constrain the placement of Anaethalion more precisely than total-group Elopomorpha.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Arratia, G. 2000. Remarkable teleostean fishes from the Late Jurassic of southern Germany and their phylogenetic relationships. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, Geowissenschaftliche, Reihe 3:137-179.
Arratia, G. 1997. Basal teleosts and teleostean phylogeny. Palaeo Ichthyologica, 7:1-168.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 5 from Benton et al. (2014).