comment on this calibration


 node name
Actinopterygii     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Benton et al. 2015
  node minimum age
378.19 Ma
Conodont biostratigraphy provides a well-constrainted age estimate for Moythomasia durgaringa. The base of the Gogo Formation spans the Schmidtognathus hermanni to Palmatolepis punctata conodont zones, indicating a late Givetian-early Frasnian age. Fish-bearing concretions in the Gogo Formation, which yield material of Moythomasia, derive predominantly from the transitans Zone (Long and Trinajstic, 2010). The top of the Palmatolepis transitans Zone is dated to 380.38 Ma ± 2.189 Myr (Becker et al., 2012), from which we derive a minimum age of 378.19 Ma.
  node maximum age
422.4 Ma
A soft maximum bound on the origin of crown Actinopterygii can be derived from the age of the diverse bony fish faunas of the Xitun, Guijiatun, and Lianhuashan formations of eastern Yunnan, China. These deposits yield a range of early lobe-finned fishes that include both stem- and crown-group representatives (Zhao and Zhu, 2009), but actinopterygians are unknown from these horizons. Correlations with other deposits that can be dated on the basis of spore biostratigraphy indicate a late Lochkovian age. The base of the Lochkovian is dated as 419.2 Ma ± 3.2 Myr, from which we derive a soft maximum bound of for the origin of crown Actinopterygii of 422.4 Ma.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
WAM 70.4.244
Moythomasia durgaringa, Gardiner, 1984
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Gogo Station, Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia
     Stratum: Gogo Formation
     Geological age: Devonian, Paleozoic

  phylogenetic justification
Gardiner (1984), Gardiner and Schaeffer (1989), Coates (1998, 1999) and Gardiner et al. (2005) resolve Moythomasia as a crown-group actinopterygian. It is united with extant Actinopteri to the exclusion of Cladistia by a series of characters related to the pectoral-fin endoskeleton, neurocranium and parasphenoid, and lower jaw (Gardiner, 1984: 397).
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Gardiner, B.G. 1984. The relationships of palaeoniscid fishes, a review based on new specimens of Mimia and Moythomasia from the Upper Devonian of Western Australia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology, 37:173-428.
Gardiner, B.G. and Schaeffer, B. 1989. Interrelationships of lower actinopterygian fishes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 97:135-187.
Gardiner, B.G., Schaeffer, B. and Masserie, J.A. 2005. A review of the lower actinopterygian phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 144:511-525.
Coates, M.I. 1998. Actinopterygian neurocrania from the Namurian of Bearsden, Scotland, with comments on early actinopterygian neurocrania. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 122:27-59.
Coates, M.I. 1999. Endocranial preservation of a Carboniferous actinopterygian of Lancashire, UK, and the interrelationships of primitive actinopterygians. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 354:435-462.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 4 from Benton et al. (2014).