Eumetazoa Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/fc-1 Benton et al. 2015
node minimum age |
The White Sea Biota, in which Kimberella is most common, has been dated using U-Pb zircon dates to either 558 Ma ± 1 Myr (Martin et al., 2000) or 552.85 ± 2.6 Ma (Narbonne et al., 2012; Gradstein et al., 2012). Specimens are also known from the Ediacara of Australia (Glaessner and Wade, 1966; Wade, 1972), but the age of this unit is less well constrained. We select the date published in 2012 as our minimum hard constraint.
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A soft maximum constraint is based on the maximum age interpretation of the Lantian Biota (Yuan et al., 2011). This, together with the Doushantuo Biota (Yuan et al., 2002) provide a series of Lagerstätten preserving the biota in Orsten- and Burgess Shale-like modes of fossilization. None of these Lagerstätten, least of all the Lantian, preserves anything that could possibly be interpreted as even a total group eumetazoan and on this basis we define out soft maximum constraint at 635.5 Ma ± 0.6 Myr (Condon et al., 2005) and, thus, 636.1 Ma.
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Kimberella preserves several features that demonstrate it is a bilateral metazoan with an anterior-posterior axis (Fedonkin and Waggoner, 1997; Fedonkin et al., 2007; Ivantsov, 2009, 2010). Specimens are often found associated with a distinct bipartite feeding trace emerging from one end of the body, indicative of a feeding apparatus with two major denticles and a grazing behavior. There appears to be a ventral creeping sole surrounded by concentric units of tissue and a dorsal soft-bodied carapace. The morphology and feeding behavior has been accredited to a molluscan affinity. No coherent argument has been presented that calls into question the lophotrochozoan affinity of Kimberella.
Fedonkin, M.A., and Waggoner, B.M. 1997. The Late Precambrian fossil Kimberella is a mollusc-like bilaterian organism. Nature, 388:868-871.
Fedonkin, M.A., Gehling, J.G., Grey, K., Narbonne, G.M., and Vickers-Rich, P. 2007. The Rise of Animals: Evolution and Diversification of the Kingdom Animalia. Johns Hopkins, Baltimore.
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