comment on this calibration


 node name
Laromorphae     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Smith, 2015
  node minimum age
23.6 Ma
Laricola remains have been reported from localities in France including the Early Miocene of Saint-Gérand-le-Puy and from the Late Oligocene Billy-Créchy locale (Milne-Edwards, 1863; Mourer-Chauviré et al., 2004; De Pietri et al., 2011). The vertebrate fauna from Créchy, France, corresponds with Paleogene mammalian zones MP25-MP30 and are considered to bracket the Miocene-Oligocene boundary with an age estimated between 24.1-23.6 Ma (Hugueney et al., 2003).
  node maximum age
0 Ma
none specified.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
MNHNFr Av.4134
Laricola elegans, De Pietri et al. 2011
Location relative to the calibrated node: Stem

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Créchy, France
     Stratum: Saint-Gérand-le-Puy
     Geological age: Chattian, Oligocene, Paleogene, Cenozoic

  phylogenetic justification
Material referred to Laricola elegans was included in a combined phylogenetic analysis by Smith (2011a) and the morphology based analysis of De Pietri et al. (2011). Laricola elegans was placed in a polytomy with the extant species Larus marinus and Larus argentatus in the results of Smith (2011a, figure 8.5) and was recovered in an unresolved position at the base of Laromorphae (the clade including Laridae, Sternidae, Rynchopidae, Gygis and Anous) in the results of De Pietri et al. (2011). The relative systematic positions of Laridae, Sternidae and Rynchopidae to one another, Larus relative to other Laridae, and the positions of Gygis and Anous relative to other Laromorphae differ in the results of recent phylogenetic analyses (e.g., Baker et al., 2007; Smith, 2011b; De Pietri et al., 2011). Moreover, because the systematic position of Laricola was unresolved in the results of De Pietri et al. (2011), Laricola elegans is suggested as a calibration for the basal divergence among Laromorphae.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Smith, N. A. 2011a. Systematics and evolution of extinct and extant Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): combined phylogenetic analyses, divergence estimation, and paleoclimatic interactions. PhD Dissertation. The University of Texas at Austin. 748pp
De Pietri, V.L., Costeur, L., Guntert, M., and Mayr, G. 2011. A revision of the Lari (Aves, Charadriiformes) from the early Miocene of Saint-Gérand-le-Puy (Allier, France). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 31:812-828.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 1 from Smith (2015).