comment on this calibration


 node name
Turnicidae     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Smith, 2015
  node minimum age
30 Ma
Geologic studies of the clay deposits of Frauenweiler, Germany have dated them to the Early Oligocene (MP22) and established an absolute age of 32.0-30.0 Ma for those deposits based on micropaleontological correlations (Micklich and Hildebrandt, 2005).
  node maximum age
0 Ma
none specified.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
SMF Av 506a+b
Turnipax oechslerorum, Mayr and Knopf, 2007
Location relative to the calibrated node: Stem

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Frauenweiler, Germany
     Stratum: Frauenweiler Clay
     Geological age: Rupelian, Oligoene, Paleogene, Cenozoic

  phylogenetic justification
Turnipax represents the stem lineage of Turnicidae (buttonquails) and was originally referred to that clade based on apomorphic characters of the coracoid, scapula, furcula, and humerus (Mayr, 2000). In addition to characters cited by Mayr (2000), Mayr and Knopf (2007:775) cited the following apomorphies that support referral of species of Turnipax to Turnicidae: (1) impressio musculi sternocoracoidei on extremitas sternalis of coracoid deeply excavated; (2) processus procoracoideus very broad; (3) caudal margin of sternum with single pair of incisions; (4) incisura capitis of humerus with transverse ridge; (5) incisions in caudal margin of sternum proportionally shorter; (6) ulna long and slender; (7) carpometacarpus elongate, with straight os metacarpale minus; (8) presence of a short hallux. Although Turnipax oechslerorum has not been included in a phylogenetic analysis, no alternative hypothesis has been proposed linking this taxon to any clade other than Turnicidae.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Mayr, G. and Knopf, C.W. 2007. A stem lineage representative of buttonquails from the lower Oligocene of Germany - fossil evidence for a charadriiform origin of the Turnicidae. Ibis, 149:774-782.
Mayr, G. 2000. Charadriiform birds from the Early Oligocene of Céreste (France) and the Middle Eocene of Messel (Hessen, Germany). Geobios, 33:625-636.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 1 from Smith (2015).