Synthliboramphus craveri - S. hypoleucus
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Synthliboramphus craveri - S. hypoleucus Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/fc-4 Smith, 2015
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The age of the San Diego Formation sediments from which the holotype specimen of Synthliboramphus rineyi was recovered was reviewed by Wagner et al. (2001). Based on microfaunal analysis and correlation with mammalian and molluskan assemblages of known age, the age of San Diego Formation is estimated to range from 3.6-1.5 Ma (i.e., Middle Pliocene to Early Pleistocene; Piacenzian-Calabrian; Wagner et al., 2001). The San Diego Formation was divided into 7 stratigraphic sub-units by Wagner et al. (2001). Paleomagnetic analysis indicates that sub-unit two can be correlated with Gilbert Chron C2Ar and Gauss Chron C2An.3n boundary, which has been assigned an age of 3.6 Ma (Wagner et al., 2001). However, the provenance of the holotype specimen within the San Diego Formation (i.e., what sub-unit it was collected from) is uncertain. Therefore the more conservative date of 1.5 Ma is recommended with respect to the age assignment of this specimen for divergence time analyses.
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Synthliboramphus rineyi was recovered in a clade with Synthliboramphus hypoleucus and Synthliboramphus craveri in the results of a combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular sequence data (Smith, 2011a). The referral of Synthliboramphus rineyi to Synthliboramphus has not been questioned.
Smith, N. A. 2011a. Systematics and evolution of extinct and extant Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): combined phylogenetic analyses, divergence estimation, and paleoclimatic interactions. PhD Dissertation. The University of Texas at Austin. 748pp
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