comment on this calibration


 node name
Sphenisciformes     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations Ksepka and Clarke, 2015
  node minimum age
60.5 Ma
The only described specimen of Waimanu manneringi was collected from the basal Waipara Greensand (Slack et al., 2006). The top of the Waipara Greensand marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, placing the fossil well within the Paleocene. Calcareous nannofossils further constrain this locality’s age. The last appearance datum for Hornibrookina teuriensis is no younger than early Selandian (60.5 Ma), and the overlap between the ranges of Hornibrookina teuriensis and Chaismolithus bidens spans 60.5-61.6 Ma (Cooper, 2004; Slack et al., 2006; Ogg et al., 2008). The youngest possible age (60.5 Ma) is used as a hard minimum age.
  node maximum age
0 Ma
None specified
 primary fossil used to date this node 
CM zfa35
Waimanu manneringi, Ando, Jones, and Fordyce, 2006
Location relative to the calibrated node: Stem

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Waipara River M34/f453
     Stratum: Waipara Greensand
     Geological age: Selandian, Paleocene, Paleogene, Cenozoic
     [View locality in Paleobiology Database]

More information in Fossilworks   PaleoBioDB

  phylogenetic justification
Waimanu was recovered as the most basal penguin taxon by multiple analyses using morphological data (Slack et al. 2006) and combined (morphological plus molecular) data (Ksepka et al. 2006, 2012; Clarke et al. 2007, 2011; Ksepka and Clarke, 2010a). No alternative hypothesis has been proposed linking Waimanu to any group other than Sphenisciformes.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Slack, K.E., Jones, C.M., Ando, T., Harrison, G.L., Fordyce, R.E., Arnason, U., and Penny, D. 2006. Early penguin fossils, plus mitochondrial genomes, calibrate avian evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23: 1144-1155.
[View electronic resource]
Ksepka, D.T., Bertelli, S., and Giannini, N.P. 2006. The phylogeny of the living and fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins). Cladistics, 22: 412-441.
Clarke, J.A., Ksepka, D.T., Stucchi, M., Urbina, M., Giannini, N., Bertelli, S., Narváez, Y., and Boyd, C.A. 2007. Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104: 11545-11550.
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2010. The basal penguin (Aves: Sphenisciformes) Perudyptes devriesi and a phylogenetic evaluation of the penguin fossil record. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 337: 1-77.
Clarke, J.A., Ksepka, D.T., Salas-Gismondi, R., Altamirano, A.J., Shawkey, M.D., D'Alba, L., Vinther, J., DeVries, T.J., and Baby, P. 2010. Fossil evidence for evolution of the shape and color of penguin feathers. Science, 330: 954-957.
Ksepka, D.T., Fordyce, R.E., Ando, T., and Jones, C.M. 2012. New fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) from the Oligocene of New Zealand reveal the skeletal plan of stem penguins. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32: 235-254.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
FIGURE 3 from Ksepka and Clarke (2014). Phylogenetic tree showing position of Waimanu manneringi, illustrating the divergence calibrated by CM zfa35.