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Raising the Standard in Fossil Calibration

The Fossil Calibration Database is a curated collection of well-justified calibrations, including many published in the journal Palaeontologia Electronica. We also promote best practices for justifying fossil calibrations and citing calibrations properly.

CLADE SUBMITTED: Opisthokonta
nameToSourceNodeInfo('Opisthokonta') return this node_data:
Array ( [taxonid] => 33154 [source] => NCBI )
nameToMultitreeID('Opisthokonta') returns ID:
33154
QUERY:
SELECT DISTINCT calibration_id FROM calibrations_by_NCBI_clade WHERE clade_root_multitree_id = '33154' AND calibration_id IN (SELECT CalibrationID FROM calibrations WHERE PublicationStatus = 4)
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'Sphenisciformes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Anatoidea (Anatidae - Anseranatidae)':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Charadrii':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Fratecula arctica':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Fraterculinae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Macropodoidea':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Monotremata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Chiroptera':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Alcidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Cepphus carbo - other Cepphus':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Synthliboramphus craveri - S. hypoleucus':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Uria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Alca torda':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Charadriiformes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Burhinidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Jacanidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Calidridinae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Turnicidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Laromorphae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Brachyramphus marmoratus - B. brevirostris':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Uria - Alle':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Metazoa':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Caviomorpha-Phiomorpha':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Cnidaria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Eumetazoa':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Bilateria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Protostomia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Ecdysozoa':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Lobopodia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Arthropoda':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Lophotrochozoa':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Mollusca':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Annelida':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Deuterostomia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Ambulacraria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Echinodermata ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Hemichordata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Chordata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Olfactores':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Vertebrata-Craniata ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Cyclostomata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Gnathostomata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Chondrichthyes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Osteichthyes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Sarcopterygii':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Rhipidistia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Actinopterygii':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Chondrostei':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Neopterygii':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Holostei':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Ginglymodi':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Teleostei':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Clupeocephala':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Otocephala':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Ostariophysi':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Acanthomorpha':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Oryzias, Cichlidae – Gasterosteus, Takifugu, Tet':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Oryzias – Cichlidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Cichlidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Gasterosteus - Tetraodon, Takifugu ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Gasterosteidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Tetraodon - Takifugu':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Tetrapoda':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Lissamphibia ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Batrachia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Anura':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Caudata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Gymnophiona':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Amniota':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Reptilia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Diapsida':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Archosauria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Lepidosauria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Squamata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Neornithes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Neognathae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Neoaves':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Palaeognathae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Testudines':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Mammalia ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Marsupialia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Theria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Placentalia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Atlantogenata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Xenarthra':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Afrotheria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Proboscidea':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Sirenia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Boreotheria':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Laurasiatheria ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Lipotyphla':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Carnivora ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Artiodactyla':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Whippomorpha - Ruminantia ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Cetacea':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Bovinae-Antilopinae ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Euarchontoglires':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Glires':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Lagomorpha':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Rodentia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Muroidea + Ctenohystrica':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Mus - Rattus':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Archonta':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Primates':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Strepsirhini':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Anthropoidea':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Catarrhini':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Hominoidea':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Hominidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Chimpanzee-Human ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Humanity':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Coracioidea':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Apodidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Coliiformes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Psittaciformes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Upupiformes ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Phaethontes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Threskiornithidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Pelecanidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Fregatidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Phalacrocoracidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Serpentes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Alethinophidia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Aniliidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Boinae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Eunectes':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Charinidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Charininae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Loxocemidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Morelia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Odonata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Zygoptera':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Epiprocta':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Anisoptera':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Aeshnidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Gomphidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Cavilabiata':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Macromiidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Libellulidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Corduliidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Pan-Caenophidia ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Pan-Colubroidea':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Acrochordus javanicus ':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Viperinae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Colubridae+Elapoidea':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Naja':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Oxyuraninae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Heterodon + Farancia':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Pantherophis+Pituophis':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Blaberidae':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Cariblattoides + Cariblatta':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
'Ectobius':
displayedRelevance: 1 / 1 = 1.00
				
Clade member > 48.14 Ma Added Sep 11, 2017
Ectobius – from Evangelista et al. 2017
Evangelista, D.A., Djernæs, A., and Kohli, M.K. 2017. Fossil calibrations for the cockroach phylogeny (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Blattodea), comments on the use of wings for their identification, and a redescription of the oldest Blaberidae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.3.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 48.14 Ma Added Sep 08, 2017
Cariblattoides + Cariblatta – from Evangelista et al. 2017
Evangelista, D.A., Djernæs, A., and Kohli, M.K. 2017. Fossil calibrations for the cockroach phylogeny (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Blattodea), comments on the use of wings for their identification, and a redescription of the oldest Blaberidae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.3.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 52 Ma Added Sep 08, 2017
Blaberidae – from Evangelista et al. 2017
Evangelista, D.A., Djernæs, A., and Kohli, M.K. 2017. Fossil calibrations for the cockroach phylogeny (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Blattodea), comments on the use of wings for their identification, and a redescription of the oldest Blaberidae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 20.3.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 11.93 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Pantherophis+Pituophis – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member > 12.08 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Heterodon + Farancia – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member > 10 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Oxyuraninae – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member > 17 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Naja – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member > 30.8 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Colubridae+Elapoidea – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member 20–23.8 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Viperinae – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member 18.05–23.08 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Acrochordus javanicus – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member 50.5–72.1 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Pan-Colubroidea – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member 66–72.1 Ma Added Jun 21, 2016
Pan-Caenophidia – from Head et al. 2016
Head, J.J., K. Mahlow, and J. Müller. 2016. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 2: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Elapoidea, Colubridae. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.2.2FC   more »
				
Clade member > 12.7 Ma Added Mar 17, 2016
Corduliidae – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 29.2 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Libellulidae – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 15.5 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Macromiidae – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 168 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Cavilabiata – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 150 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Gomphidae – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 139.8 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Aeshnidae – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 168 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Anisoptera – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 199.3 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Epiprocta – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 132.9 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Zygoptera – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 237 Ma Added Mar 11, 2016
Odonata – from Kohli et al., 2016
Kohli, M.K., Ware, J.L., and Bechly, G. 2016. How to date a dragonfly: Fossil calibrations for odonates. Palaeontologia Electronica, 19.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 12.5 Ma Added Apr 14, 2015
Morelia – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 35.2 Ma Added Apr 14, 2015
Loxocemidae – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 18.7 Ma Added Apr 14, 2015
Charininae – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 35.2 Ma Added Apr 14, 2015
Charinidae – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 12.375 Ma Added Apr 14, 2015
Eunectes – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member 58–64 Ma Added Apr 13, 2015
Boinae – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 72.1 Ma Added Apr 13, 2015
Aniliidae – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member 93.9–100.5 Ma Added Apr 13, 2015
Alethinophidia – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member 98.32–113 Ma Added Apr 13, 2015
Serpentes – from Head, 2015
Head, J.J. 2015. Fossil calibration dates for molecular phylogenetic analysis of snakes 1: Serpentes, Alethinophidia, Boidae, Pythonidae. Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.6FC.   more »
				
Clade member < 24.52 Ma Added Apr 12, 2015
Phalacrocoracidae – from Smith and Ksepka, 2015
Smith, N.D and D.T. Ksepka. 2015. Five well-supported fossil calibrations within the "Waterbird" assemblage (Tetrapoda, Aves). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.7FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 51.81 Ma Added Apr 12, 2015
Fregatidae – from Smith and Ksepka, 2015
Smith, N.D and D.T. Ksepka. 2015. Five well-supported fossil calibrations within the "Waterbird" assemblage (Tetrapoda, Aves). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.7FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 28.1 Ma Added Apr 12, 2015
Pelecanidae – from Smith and Ksepka, 2015
Smith, N.D and D.T. Ksepka. 2015. Five well-supported fossil calibrations within the "Waterbird" assemblage (Tetrapoda, Aves). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.7FC.   more »
				
Clade member < 53.9 Ma Added Apr 12, 2015
Threskiornithidae – from Smith and Ksepka, 2015
Smith, N.D and D.T. Ksepka. 2015. Five well-supported fossil calibrations within the "Waterbird" assemblage (Tetrapoda, Aves). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.7FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 56 Ma Added Apr 12, 2015
Phaethontes – from Smith and Ksepka, 2015
Smith, N.D and D.T. Ksepka. 2015. Five well-supported fossil calibrations within the "Waterbird" assemblage (Tetrapoda, Aves). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.7FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 46.6 Ma Added Nov 16, 2014
Upupiformes – from Ksepka and Clarke, 2015
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2015. Phylogenetically vetted and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations within Aves. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.3FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 53.5 Ma Added Nov 16, 2014
Psittaciformes – from Ksepka and Clarke, 2015
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2015. Phylogenetically vetted and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations within Aves. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.3FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 56.22 Ma Added Nov 16, 2014
Coliiformes – from Ksepka and Clarke, 2015
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2015. Phylogenetically vetted and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations within Aves. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.3FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 51 Ma Added Nov 16, 2014
Apodidae – from Ksepka and Clarke, 2015
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2015. Phylogenetically vetted and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations within Aves. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.3FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 51.57 Ma Added Nov 16, 2014
Coracioidea – from Ksepka and Clarke, 2015
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2015. Phylogenetically vetted and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations within Aves. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.3FC.   more »
				
Clade member 0.2–1 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Humanity – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 6.5–10 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Chimpanzee-Human – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 11.6–33.9 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Hominidae – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 11.6–33.9 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Hominoidea – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 24.44–34 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Catarrhini – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 33.9–66 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Anthropoidea – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 33.9–56 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Strepsirhini – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 56–66 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Primates – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 61.6–164.6 Ma Added Oct 27, 2014
Archonta – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 10.4–14 Ma Added Oct 26, 2014
Mus - Rattus – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 47.6–59.2 Ma Added Oct 26, 2014
Muroidea + Ctenohystrica – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 56–66 Ma Added Oct 26, 2014
Rodentia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 47.6–66 Ma Added Oct 26, 2014
Lagomorpha – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 56–164.6 Ma Added Oct 26, 2014
Glires – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 64.6–164.6 Ma Added Oct 26, 2014
Euarchontoglires – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 16–28.1 Ma Added Oct 26, 2014
Bovinae-Antilopinae – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 33.9–56 Ma Added Oct 24, 2014
Cetacea – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 52.4–66 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Whippomorpha - Ruminantia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 52.4–66 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Artiodactyla – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 37.3–66 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Carnivora – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 61.6–164.6 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Lipotyphla – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 61.6–164.6 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Laurasiatheria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 61.6–164.6 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Boreotheria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 47.6–66 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Sirenia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 5.33–23.03 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Proboscidea – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 56–164.6 Ma Added Oct 16, 2014
Afrotheria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 47.6–164.6 Ma Added Oct 14, 2014
Xenarthra – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 56–164.6 Ma Added Oct 14, 2014
Atlantogenata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 61.6–164.6 Ma Added Oct 14, 2014
Placentalia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 157.3–169.6 Ma Added Oct 13, 2014
Theria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 47.6–131.3 Ma Added Oct 13, 2014
Marsupialia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 164.9–201.5 Ma Added Oct 13, 2014
Mammalia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
		Array
(
    [CalibrationID] => 244
    [NodeName] => Testudines
    [HigherTaxon] => Reptilia
    [MinAge] => 155.6
    [MinAgeExplanation] => The holotype of <i>Caribemys oxfordiensis</i> de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent, 2001 (MNHNCu P-3209) from the Oxfordian Jugua Formation of Cuba is a total group pleurodire
and thus placed inside crown Testudines has been universally
accepted (e.g., de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent, 2001; Gaffney et al., 2006; Joyce, 2007; Sterli and de la Fuente, 2011; Anquetin, 2012). Thus the minimum constraint on the age of crown Testudines is placed at the top of the Oxfordian (155.7 ± 4.0 Ma; Gradstein et al., 2004; Ogg et al., 2008) at 155.6 Ma.
    [MaxAge] => 251.4
    [MaxAgeExplanation] => A constraint for the oldest possible age of the turtle crown must encompass <i>Proterochersis robusta</i>, even though its status as a crown turtle is highly questionable. The Lower to Middle Triassic has produced just one total group testudine, <i>Odontochelys semitestacea</i> Li et al., 2008, and we see no reason to doubt its placement as the oldest unambiguous stem-turtle (Anquetin, 2012). Rich Permian fossil sites worldwide have failed to yield anything that resembles a crown turtle, beyond the enigmatic <i>Eunotosaurus africanus</i> Seeley, 1892, which generally appears to serve the role of an early stem turtle well (Lyson et al., 2010). We therefore place our hard maximum at the base of the Triassic (251.0 ± 0.4 Ma; Gradstein et al., 2004; Ogg et al., 2008) at 251.4 Ma.
    [PrimaryLinkedFossilID] => 173
    [DateCreated] => 2014-10-08 16:19:52
    [PublicationID] => 374
    [ShortName] => Joyce et al. 2013
    [FullReference] => Joyce, W.G., Parham, J.F., Lyson, T.R., Warnock, R.C.M., Donoghue, P.C.J. 2013. A divergence dating analysis of turtles using fossil calibrations: an example of best practices. Journal of Paleontology 87, 612-634.
    [DOI] => 
    [image] => 
    [image_caption] => 
    [qualifiers] => Array
        (
            [0] => Array
                (
                    [relationship] => 07-CLADE-MEMBER
                    [relevance] => 1
                )

        )

    [displayedRelationship] => 07-CLADE-MEMBER
    [displayedRelevance] => 1.00
)
		
Clade member 155.6–251.4 Ma Added Oct 08, 2014
Testudines – from Joyce et al. 2013
Joyce, W.G., Parham, J.F., Lyson, T.R., Warnock, R.C.M., Donoghue, P.C.J. 2013. A divergence dating analysis of turtles using fossil calibrations: an example of best practices. Journal of Paleontology 87, 612-634.   more »
				
Clade member 56.8–86.8 Ma Added Oct 04, 2014
Palaeognathae – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 60.2–86.8 Ma Added Oct 04, 2014
Neoaves – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 66–86.8 Ma Added Oct 04, 2014
Neognathae – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 66–86.8 Ma Added Oct 04, 2014
Neornithes – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 168.9–209.5 Ma Added Oct 03, 2014
Squamata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 238–252.7 Ma Added Oct 03, 2014
Lepidosauria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 247.1–260.2 Ma Added Oct 03, 2014
Archosauria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 255.9–295.9 Ma Added Oct 03, 2014
Diapsida – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 255.9–295.9 Ma Added Oct 03, 2014
Reptilia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 318–332.9 Ma Added Oct 03, 2014
Amniota – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 56–145.8 Ma Added Oct 02, 2014
Gymnophiona – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 146.8–175.1 Ma Added Oct 02, 2014
Caudata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 165.3–201.5 Ma Added Oct 02, 2014
Anura – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 250–272.8 Ma Added Oct 02, 2014
Batrachia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 250–272.8 Ma Added Sep 28, 2014
Lissamphibia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 337–351 Ma Added Sep 28, 2014
Tetrapoda – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 32.02–56 Ma Added Sep 27, 2014
Tetraodon - Takifugu – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 13.1–33.9 Ma Added Sep 27, 2014
Gasterosteidae – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 69.71–130.6 Ma Added Sep 27, 2014
Gasterosteus - Tetraodon, Takifugu – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 45.46–100.5 Ma Added Sep 27, 2014
Cichlidae – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 49.11–130.8 Ma Added Sep 26, 2014
Oryzias – Cichlidae – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 69.71–130.8 Ma Added Sep 26, 2014
Oryzias, Cichlidae – Gasterosteus, Takifugu, Tet – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 98–158.3 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Acanthomorpha – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 126.3–158.3 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Ostariophysi – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 150.94–228.4 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Otocephala – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 150.94–235 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Clupeocephala – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 151.2–252.7 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Teleostei – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 93.9–145 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Ginglymodi – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 250–331.1 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Holostei – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 250–331.1 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Neopterygii – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 120.8–201.5 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Chondrostei – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 378.19–422.4 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Actinopterygii – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 408–427.9 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Rhipidistia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 408–427.9 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Sarcopterygii – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 420.7–444.9 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Osteichthyes – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 333.56–422.4 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Chondrichthyes – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 420.7–468.4 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Gnathostomata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 358.5–636.1 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Cyclostomata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 457.5–636.1 Ma Added Sep 25, 2014
Vertebrata-Craniata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 514–636.1 Ma Added Sep 21, 2014
Olfactores – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 514–636.1 Ma Added Sep 20, 2014
Chordata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 504.5–636.1 Ma Added Sep 20, 2014
Hemichordata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 509–549 Ma Added Sep 20, 2014
Echinodermata – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 515.5–636.1 Ma Added Sep 20, 2014
Ambulacraria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 515.5–636.1 Ma Added Sep 20, 2014
Deuterostomia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 476.5–636.1 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Annelida – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 532–549 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Mollusca – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 550.25–636.1 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Lophotrochozoa – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 514–636.1 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Arthropoda – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 528.82–636.1 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Lobopodia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 528.82–636.1 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Ecdysozoa – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 550.25–636.1 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Protostomia – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 550.25–636.1 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Bilateria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 550.25–636.1 Ma Added Sep 19, 2014
Eumetazoa – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 529–636.1 Ma Added Sep 14, 2014
Cnidaria – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member 40.94–56 Ma Added Sep 14, 2014
Caviomorpha-Phiomorpha – from Phillips, 2015
Phillips, M.J. 2015. Four mammal fossil calibrations: balancing competing palaeontological and molecular considerations. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.5FC.   more »
				
Clade member 550.25–833 Ma Added Sep 13, 2014
Metazoa – from Benton et al. 2015
Benton, M.J., Donoghue, P.C.J., Asher, R.A., Friedman, M., Near, T.J., and Vinther, J. 2015. Constraints on the timescale of animal evolutionary history. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.1FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 15.97 Ma Added May 07, 2014
Uria - Alle – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 1.5 Ma Added May 07, 2014
Brachyramphus marmoratus - B. brevirostris – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 23.6 Ma Added May 06, 2014
Laromorphae – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 30 Ma Added May 06, 2014
Turnicidae – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 11.62 Ma Added May 06, 2014
Calidridinae – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 30 Ma Added May 06, 2014
Jacanidae – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 23.03 Ma Added May 06, 2014
Burhinidae – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 46.5 Ma Added May 06, 2014
Charadriiformes – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 7.3 Ma Added May 05, 2014
Alca torda – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 2.6 Ma Added May 05, 2014
Uria – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 1.5 Ma Added Jun 03, 2013
Synthliboramphus craveri - S. hypoleucus – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 6.7 Ma Added Jun 03, 2013
Cepphus carbo - other Cepphus – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 34.2 Ma Added Jun 03, 2013
Alcidae – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member 45–58.9 Ma Added May 31, 2013
Chiroptera – from Phillips, 2015
Phillips, M.J. 2015. Four mammal fossil calibrations: balancing competing palaeontological and molecular considerations. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.5FC.   more »
				
Clade member 15.97–113 Ma Added May 31, 2013
Monotremata – from Phillips, 2015
Phillips, M.J. 2015. Four mammal fossil calibrations: balancing competing palaeontological and molecular considerations. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.5FC.   more »
				
Clade member 15.97–54.65 Ma Added May 31, 2013
Macropodoidea – from Phillips, 2015
Phillips, M.J. 2015. Four mammal fossil calibrations: balancing competing palaeontological and molecular considerations. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.5FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 6.7 Ma Added May 30, 2013
Fraterculinae – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 4.2 Ma Added May 30, 2013
Fratecula arctica – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 41.3 Ma Added May 30, 2013
Charadrii – from Smith, 2015
Smith, N.A. 2015. Sixteen vetted fossil calibrations for divergence dating of Charadriiformes (Aves, Neognathae). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.4FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 66.5 Ma Added May 30, 2013
Anatoidea (Anatidae - Anseranatidae) – from Ksepka and Clarke, 2015
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2015. Phylogenetically vetted and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations within Aves. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.3FC.   more »
				
Clade member > 60.5 Ma Added May 30, 2013
Sphenisciformes – from Ksepka and Clarke, 2015
Ksepka, D.T. and Clarke, J.A. 2015. Phylogenetically vetted and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations within Aves. Palaeontologia Electronica, 18.1.3FC.   more »
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