comment on this calibration


 node name
Eukinolabia     Look for this name in NCBI   Wikipedia   Animal Diversity Web
  recommended citations
Wolfe et al. 2016
  node minimum age
129.41 Ma
This fossil was discovered in amber from the Mdeyrij-Hammanaoutcrop of the Baabda district, Mount Lebanon (Azar et al., 2010). Recent revision of the stratigraphy of Lebanese amber deposits place sthe Hammana fossils in the upper interval of the Grès du Liban (Maksoud et al., in press). This is below the Jezzinian regional stage (Maksoud et al., 2014) and above the Banc deMrejatt subunit (indicated as Ba3–Ba4 in Fig. 4 of Maksoud et al., in press). Despite the lack of microfossils to further constrain the oldest boundary of the Jezzinian within the late Barremian, there is evidence that later Lebanese amber deposits bear the same age as Jezzine amber (see Section 26.3) because the amber itself has been reworked (Maksoud et al., in press).We adopt the early Barremian minimum age proposed by Maksoud et al. (in press). The upper boundary of the early Barremian is proposed to be the first appearance of the ammonite A. vandenheckii (Ogg et al.,2012a). Cyclostratigraphy dates the A. vandenheckii Zone beginning at 129.41 Ma (Ogg et al., 2012a), providing a minimum age for Jezzine Lebanese amber fossils.
  node maximum age
411 Ma
A soft maximum age is estimated from R. praecursor, the oldest hexapod, from the Early Devonian (Pragian) Rhynie Chert of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Spore assemblages of the Windyfield and stratigraphically underlying Rhynie Chert are dated to the early but not earliest Pragian to early (earliest?) Emsian (polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone) (Parry et al., 2011). Radiometric dating of the underlying Milton of Noth Andesite at ca. 411 Ma (Parry et al., 2011, 2013) has been subject to a dispute over its temporal relationship to hot spring activity associated with the cherts (Mark et al., 2011, 2013) and predates the biostratigraphic dating of the Rhynie Chert relative to the global dating of the base of the Pragian Stage. Therefore, a soft maximum constraint may be defined at 411 Ma for the Rhynie Chert.
 primary fossil used to date this node 
Cretophasmomima melanogramma, Wang et al., 2014
Location relative to the calibrated node: Crown

[show fossil details]
     Locality: Mdeyrij-Hammana, Mount Lebanon
     Geological age: Cretaceous, Mesozoic

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  phylogenetic justification
C. melanogramma shares the ‘shoulder pad’ structure, and twig-like appearance (elongated meso- and metathorax) diagnostic of total group Phasmatodea (Wang et al., 2014). Crown membership within Phasmatodea is questionable, as important synapomorphies, the vomer and forceps-like extensions of the 10th abdominal tergum, are absent from C. melanogramma (Wang et al., 2014). The position of C. melanogramma on the stem lineage of Phasmatodea therefore places it within the crown group of Eukinolabia.
  phylogenetic reference(s)
Wang, M., Béthoux, O., Bradler, S., Jacques, F.M.B., Cui, Y. and Ren, D. 2014. Under cover at Pre-Angiosperm times: a cloaked Phasmatodean insect from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota. PLoS One 9, e91290.
 tree image (click image for full size) 
tree image
Figure 19 from Wolfe et al. (2016).