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Testudines Look for this name in NCBI Wikipedia Animal Diversity Web
Joyce et al. 2013
node minimum age |
The holotype of Caribemys oxfordiensis de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent, 2001 (MNHNCu P-3209) from the Oxfordian Jugua Formation of Cuba is a total group pleurodire and thus placed inside crown Testudines has been universally accepted (e.g., de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent, 2001; Gaffney et al., 2006; Joyce, 2007; Sterli and de la Fuente, 2011; Anquetin, 2012). Thus the minimum constraint on the age of crown Testudines is placed at the top of the Oxfordian (155.7 ± 4.0 Ma; Gradstein et al., 2004; Ogg et al., 2008) at 155.6 Ma.
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A constraint for the oldest possible age of the turtle crown must encompass Proterochersis robusta, even though its status as a crown turtle is highly questionable. The Lower to Middle Triassic has produced just one total group testudine, Odontochelys semitestacea Li et al., 2008, and we see no reason to doubt its placement as the oldest unambiguous stem-turtle (Anquetin, 2012). Rich Permian fossil sites worldwide have failed to yield anything that resembles a crown turtle, beyond the enigmatic Eunotosaurus africanus Seeley, 1892, which generally appears to serve the role of an early stem turtle well (Lyson et al., 2010). We therefore place our hard maximum at the base of the Triassic (251.0 ± 0.4 Ma; Gradstein et al., 2004; Ogg et al., 2008) at 251.4 Ma.
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The holotype of Caribemys oxfordiensis de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent, 2001 (MNHNCu P-3209) from the Oxfordian Jugua Formation of Cuba is a total group pleurodire, and thus placed inside crown Testudines (de la Fuente and Iturralde-Vinent, 2001; Gaffney et al., 2006; Joyce, 2007; Sterli and de la Fuente, 2011; Anquetin, 2012).
de la Fuente, M.S., and M. Iturralde-Vinent, 2001A new pleurodiran turtle from the Jagua Formation (Oxfordian) of Western Cuba. Journal of Paleontology, 75:860–869.
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Gaffney, E.S., Tong, H., and Meylan, P.A. 2006. Evolution of the sidenecked turtles: The families Bothremydidae, Euraxemydidae, and Araripemydidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 300, 1–318.
Joyce, W.G. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of Mesozoic turtles. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 48, 3-102.
Sterli, J. and de la Fuente, M.S. 2011. A new turtle from the La Colonia Formation (Campanian–Maastrichtian), Patagonia, Argentina, with remarks on the evolution of the vertebral column in turtles. Palaeontology 54, 63-78.
Anquetin, J. 2012. Reassessment of the phylogenetic interrelationships of basal turtles (Testudinata). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10, 3-45.
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